考研英语题源外刊:帮助潜在移民留在家园基督教科学箴言报





2021年6月9日

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Helping would-be migrants stay put

帮助潜在移民留在家园

Since 2015, when more than 200,000 people crossed the Mediterranean Sea monthly from North Africa in search of work and safe harbor from conflict, it not only altered the politics in Europe, but it also pushed the European Union to spend roughly $550 million in Libya to help stem the human flow. The funding put more ships off the Libyan coast to intercept migrant flotillas. It improved detention centers in the country. By one measure the investment has paid off. The monthly average of migrants crossing from North Africa so far this year has dropped to roughly 5,500.

2015 年以来,每月都有超过200,000 人从北非穿越地中海去寻找工作和逃离冲突的避风港。这不仅改变了欧洲的政治局面,也促使欧盟在利比亚花费了大约5.5 亿美元以阻止人们流入欧洲。这笔资金使更多船只驻扎在利比亚海岸拦截移民船队,也对该国的拘留中心进行了扩建。从一方面来看,这笔投资已经显示出了效果。今年到目前为止,从北非过境的移民的月平均人数已降至约5,500 人。

But containment measures do not tell the full story of what is happening in Libya and why it matters to U.S. and European efforts to end illegal immigration. A new study of migrants in Misurata, Libya s third-largest port, offers timely insights into the motivations and solutions for human flight. And it comes ahead of two key efforts by Western governments animated by migrant crises. One is a trip by U.S. Vice President Kamala Harris to Mexico and Guatemala beginning Sunday. The other is a summit in Germany later this month to advance Libya s transition from civil war to democracy.

但遏制移民的措施并没有真正反映利比亚所发生的一切,更没有说明为什么这一措施对美国和欧洲致力于结束非法移民的工作的重要性。对利比亚第三大港口米苏拉塔的移民进行的一项新的研究,为人们逃离的动机和解决方案及时地提供了见解。这项研究完成之后,受到移民危机刺激的西方政府进行了两项关键举措:一是美国副总统卡玛拉·哈里斯周日开始前往墨西哥和危地马拉进行访问;二是本月晚些时候将在德国举行峰会,以推动利比亚从内战向民主进行过渡。

Libya was an important destination for migrant labor in Africa for decades. Its economy depended on foreign workers from neighboring countries to fill jobs in farm fields and dockyards that Libyans shunned. That changed after the fall of longtime dictator Muammar Qaddafi in 2011 and the decade of conflict that followed. Economic collapse and deteriorating security conditions in the rival strongholds of Tripoli and Benghazi drove migrant laborers to seek refuge in Europe. Many of those who were turned back ended up in overcrowded detention facilities in Libya and were subjected to human rights abuses.

数十年来,利比亚一直是非洲移民劳工前往的重要目的地。该国经济依靠来自邻国的外国工人承担利比亚人不愿意做的务农和造船工作。在2011 年多年独裁的穆阿迈尔·卡扎菲倒台及随后的十年冲突之后,这种情况发生了变化。在的黎波里和班加西这两个敌对据点发生的经济崩溃,以及不断恶化的安全状况,使移民劳工前往欧洲寻求庇护。但许多被拒之门外的人最终被关押到利比亚人满为患的拘留设施中,人权遭受侵犯。

Conditions in Misurata, set between those two larger cities, were different. A careful balance of power among the leaders of different armed groups many of whom are wealthy businessmen kept civic, social, and economic life humming. The new study, conducted jointly by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University, relied on 1,045 in-depth interviews with migrants living in Misurata during the latter half of 2019, providing a fine-grained view of life for the city s 56,000 migrants. The findings are more intuitive than surprising: Economic and security stability in Misurata increased its need for migrant labor and decreased the need for those laborers to move onward to, for instance, Europe.

位于这两个大城市之间的米苏拉塔的情况有所不同。不同武装团体的领导人(其中许多是富有的商人)之间的权力制衡使公民、社会和经济生活仍能保持活跃。 这项由国际移民组织 (IOM) 和乔治城大学当代阿拉伯研究中心联合进行的新研究,对2019 年下半年居住在米苏拉塔的移民进行了1,045 次深入的访谈,并对该市56,000 名移民的生活提供了细节的分析。 调查结果更符合人们的直觉,而且并不意外:米苏拉塔的经济和安全稳定增加了其对移民劳工的需求,并减少了这些劳动力前往欧洲等地的需求。

Most migrants in Libya come from four neighboring countries facing armed conflict, dire political and economic instability, or both of these conditions: Niger, Egypt, Chad, and Sudan. Roughly 80% arrived within the past four years. The study found that 92% of migrants in Misurata were able to meet their basic needs and 62% had no plans to move onward: Migrants report that economic factors, like the type of job they have (80%) and the number of available jobs (70%), improved security-related conditions (77%), and their standard of living (72%) provide impetus for them to stay.

利比亚的大多数移民来自四个面临着武装冲突、政治和经济严重不稳定或两害兼有的邻国,即尼日尔、埃及、乍得和苏丹。大约80% 的移民都是在过去四年内抵达的。研究发现,米苏拉塔92% 的移民都能够满足自己的基本需求,62% 的人没有继续前进的计划:“移民们表示,经济因素,例如拥有的工作类型(80%) 和可以找到的工作数量(70%) 、安全相关的条件改善 (77%) ,其自身的生活水平(72%) 成为了他们留在当地的动力。”

The IOM/Georgetown study confirms the better intentions of the United States and EU to stabilize both the sources of illegal immigration and the countries whose economies are dependent on legal migrant labor. When Vice President Harris meets with Guatemalan President Alejandro Giammattei on Monday, they will focus on the broad forces of human displacement: economic desperation, violence, corruption, and climate change. Though far from the border, their conversation may be closer to what Harvard scholar Jacqueline Bhabha, author of a book on migration, calls the imperatives that stem from our common humanity.

国际移民组织与乔治城大学的研究证明,美国和欧盟在稳定非法移民来源国家和经济依赖于合法移民劳动力的国家方面采取了善意的举措。周一,当哈里斯副总统会见危地马拉总统亚历杭德罗·贾马泰时,他们将重点讨论造成人口流离失所的宏观因素,包括对经济的绝望情绪、暴力、腐败和气候变化。尽管危地马拉远离北非边境地区,但两位领导人的谈话可能更接近于写作了以移民为主题的著作的哈佛学者杰奎琳·巴巴(Jacqueline Bhabha )所表达的,是“源于我们共同人性的必要举措”。


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词汇积累

1、stem [stem] n.  干;茎;船首;血统vt.  阻止;除去的茎;给装柄vi.  阻止;起源于某事物;逆行abbr.  理工科的统称(science technology engineering math

2、intercept [ ??nt ?r ?sept] vt.  拦截;截断;窃听n.  拦截;[ 截距;截获的情报

3、flotillas [flo ??t ?l ?] n.  小型船队;小舰队

4、detention [d ??ten ?n] n.  拘留;延迟;挽留

5、animate [ ??n ?me ?t] vt.  使有生气;使活泼;鼓舞;推动adj.  有生命的

6、dockyard dɑ ?kjɑ ?rd] n. [ 造船厂;海军工厂

7、shun [ ??n] vt.  避开,避免;回避n. (Shun) 人名;( ) ( )

8、dictator [ ?d ?kte ?t ?r] n.  独裁者;命令者

9、stronghold [ ?str ?? ?ho ?ld] n.  要塞;大本营;中心地

10、intuitive [ ?n ?tu ??t ?v] adj.  直觉的;凭直觉获知的

11、dire [ ?da ??r] adj.  可怕的;悲惨的;极端的

12、impetus [ ??mp ?t ?s] n.  动力;促进;冲力;动量

13、imperative [ ?m ?per ?t ?v] adj.  必要的,不可避免的;紧急的;命令的,专横的;势在必行的;[ ] 祈使的n.  必要的事;命令;需要;规则;[ ] 祈使语气



长难句解构

The new study, conducted jointly by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University, relied on 1,045 in-depth interviews with migrants living in Misurata during the latter half of 2019, providing a fine-grained view of life for the city s 56,000 migrants.

语法解析: 主句是 主谓宾结构 The new study relied on 1,045 in-depth interviews ),其中谓语是 动词短语 conducted jointly by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) and the Center for Contemporary Arab Studies at Georgetown University 过去分词作后置定语 with migrants 介宾短语作定语 living in Misurata 现在分词作后置定语 during the latter half of 2019 介宾短语作时间状语 providing a fine-grained view 现在分词作伴随状语 of life 介宾短语作定语 for the city s 56,000 migrants 介宾短语作定语

参考译文: 这项由国际移民组织  (IOM)  和乔治城大学当代阿拉伯研究中心联合进行的新研究,对 2019 年下半年居住在米苏拉塔的移民进行了 1,045 次深入的访谈,并对该市 56,000 名移民的生活提供了细节的分析。



每天一篇考研英语真题同源外刊泛读练习

来源 / 基督教科学箴言报

日期 / 2021年6月4日

话题 / 社会

字数 / 614

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