美国移民申请人请注意:国土安全部(DHS)开始执行公共负担不予受理最终规则

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标签: 公共负担 Public Charge 美国移民政策 美国国土安全部


      近日,美国政府发布了一条“公共负担”新政,该政策已酝酿多时,现在终于尘埃落定。接下来我们一起对这条新政进行“快速扫盲”。



 1.   “公共负担”新政是什么?


“公共负担”新政,即川普政府于2019年8月14日颁布的“the Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds-公共负担不予受理”新法规,旨在避免向贫困移民发放绿卡。

该新规定将 从多个因素考量绿卡申请、签证申请或签证延期者,是否可能成为“公共负担”从而拒绝申请或要求提供保证金。


2.   “公共负担”的定义?

 
移民局将“公共负担”重新定义为:适用于在2020年2月24日或之后,在36个月内总计接受福利超过12个月(一个月内收到两项福利算为两个月),领取一项或多项特定“公共福利”的非公民。


3.   所谓“公共福利”包括什么”?


“公共福利”包括:任何现金收入福利、补充社安收入(Supplemental Security Income-SSI)、有需要的家庭临时协助(Temporary Assistance to Needy Families -TANF)、粮食券(SupplementalNutritional Assistance Program-SNAP)、Section 8住房补助、长期护理、医疗补助(Medicaid,21岁以下的个人及孕妇或产后60天获得的福利除外)。


4.   新政何时实施?


2020年2月24日。


5.   新政如何实施?


签证申请人将会被要求在递交签证申请之时,填写该DS-5540表格,以便评估是否会成为美国的“公共负担”。


6.   谁要填DS-5540表格?


按照国务院的计划,该表格对移民签证申请人将是强制适用的。对非移民签证申请人,仅在领事官员酌情考虑下才要求提交该表格。



7.   什么类型的移民客户都需要吗?


只要是移民申请,无论是何种移民,都需要填。


8.   DS-5540表格需要填写什么呢?


目前只出了草稿,除了常规的个人信息外,还包括个人财产、住房、技能等等信息的填写。


9.  如何应对?


最好的方法,是在2月24日前递交申请,因为2月24日前提交的申请不受新政限制。


10.  可以准备什么资料?


材料的准备,一则需要根据DS-5540表格所列的准备,二则需要根据个人情况以及签证类别准备,三则可以考虑购买美国保险。材料的准备并不是千篇一律的,需要根据具体个案分析。



DHS Implements Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds Final Rule


Release Date: 

WASHINGTON—The U.S. Department of Homeland Security 

today implemented the Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds final rule. Under the final rule, DHS will look at the factors required under the law by Congress, like an alien’s age, health, family status, assets, resources, and financial status, education and skills, among others, in order to determine whether the alien is likely at any time to become a public charge. The rule now applies nationwide, including in Illinois.


Self-sufficiency is a long-standing principle of immigration law. Since the 1800s, inadmissibility based on public charge has been a part of immigration law. Since 1996, federal laws have stated that aliens seeking to come to or remain in the United States, temporarily or permanently, must be self-sufficient and rely on their own capabilities and the resources of family, friends, and private organizations instead of public benefits.  


“President Trump continues to deliver on his promise to the American people to enforce our nation’s immigration laws. After several judicial victories, DHS will finally begin implementing the Inadmissibility on Public Charge Grounds final rule,” said Ken Cuccinelli, the acting deputy secretary of the Department of Homeland Security. “This rule enforces longstanding law requiring aliens to be self-sufficient, reaffirming the American ideals of hard work, perseverance and determination. It also offers clarity and expectations to aliens considering a life in the United States and will help protect our public benefit programs.” 


The final rule defines “public charge” as an alien who has received one or more public benefits (as defined in the rule) for more than 12 months, in total, within any 36-month period.  


The final rule defines “public benefits” to include any cash benefits for income maintenance, Supplemental Security Income, Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, most forms of Medicaid and certain housing programs.  


Applicants for adjustment of status who are subject to the final rule must show that they are not likely at any time to become a public charge by submitting a Form I-944, Declaration of Self-Sufficiency, when they file their Form I-485, Application to Register Permanent Residence or Adjust Status.   


To determine whether an alien is inadmissible on the public charge grounds, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services will not consider, and applicants and petitioners do not need to report, the application for, certification or approval to receive, or receipt of certain previously excluded non-cash public benefits (such as SNAP, most forms of Medicaid, and public housing) before Feb. 24, 2020. Similarly, USCIS will not consider as a heavily weighted negative factor receipt of previously included public benefits (such as SSI and TANF) before Feb. 24, 2020, in a public charge inadmissibility determination. 


The final rule requires most aliens seeking to extend their nonimmigrant stay or change their nonimmigrant status to show that, since obtaining the nonimmigrant status they seek to extend or change, they have not received public benefits (as defined in the final rule) for more than 12 months, in total, within any 36-month period beginning Oct. 15, 2019. Due to litigation-related delays in the final rule’s implementation, DHS is applying this requirement as though it refers to Feb. 24, 2020 rather than Oct. 15, 2019. Therefore, with respect to applying the public benefits condition to applications and petitions for extension of nonimmigrant stay and change of nonimmigrant status, DHS will not consider, and applicants and petitioners need not report an alien’s receipt of any public benefits before Feb. 24, 2020.


Certain classes of aliens are exempt from the public charge ground of inadmissibility (such as refugees, asylees, certain VAWA self-petitioners, U petitioners, and T applicants) and therefore, are not subject to the final rule. 


After today, USCIS will reject prior editions of affected forms, including in Illinois where the rule remained enjoined until Feb. 21, 2020, when the U.S. Supreme Court granted a stay of the statewide injunction. If USCIS receives an application or petition for immigration benefits using prior editions of the forms postmarked on or after Feb. 24, 2020, then USCIS will inform the applicant or petitioner of the need to submit a new application or petition using the correct forms. For applications and petitions that are sent by commercial courier (such as UPS, FedEx and DHL), the postmark date is the date reflected on the courier receipt.


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