两名民主党人反对鲍威尔连任

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2011年11月22日



两名民主党人反对鲍威尔连任


两位自由民主党参议员周五表示,他们将反对美联储主席鲍威尔连任,因为他们希望美联储在应对气候变化方面发挥更积极的作用。
俄勒冈州民主党参议员杰夫·梅克利(Jeff Merkley)和共和党参议员谢尔顿·怀特豪斯(Sheldon Whitehouse)发表声明,呼吁拜登总统任命一名美联储主席,“他将确保美联储……同意政府的观点,即应对气候变化是每个决策者的责任。此人不是杰罗姆·鲍威尔。”
拜登正在决定是在共和党人鲍威尔的四年任期将于2月份届满时重新任命他,还是提拔民主党人、主要支持鲍威尔利率政策方针、同时主张采取更强硬监管姿态的美联储理事雷尔·布雷纳德。

三名参议院民主党人公开反对鲍威尔连任。另一位是马萨诸塞州参议员伊丽莎白·沃伦。他们中没有人支持另一位候选人。鲍威尔在任何确认过程中都可能面临一条获得50张参议院选票的更为舒适的道路,因为他得到了两党议员的支持。布雷纳德女士更有可能在接近党派路线的投票中获得确认。

包括蒙大拿州参议员乔恩·泰斯特(Jon Tester)在内的其他民主党人反对更换鲍威尔的呼吁,因为他们表示不想采取进一步将央行运作政治化的措施。
现年68岁的鲍威尔曾担任私人股本高管,2011年被前总统奥巴马提名加入美联储董事会,四年前被前总统唐纳德·特朗普任命为央行行长。
59岁的布雷纳德女士是一名经济学家,2014年加入美联储,此前她在奥巴马财政部和克林顿白宫就国际经济问题工作。
进步民主党人今年对通过立法程序解决气候变化的前景感到失望,转而将注意力转向监管机构,通过行政程序推进改革。
环保组织对美联储施加了更大的压力,要求其运用监督银行系统安全和稳健的权力,采取措施,从监测银行对气候相关天气事件的恢复能力,到更积极地影响化石燃料相关投资的借贷成本。
其他民主党人表示,推动美联储单方面应对气候风险的做法是错误的,因为这可能造成政治反对,并促使国会更广泛地限制其自主性。
自由经济和政策研究中心联合创始人迪安·贝克(Dean Baker)表示:“如果有一家积极推广清洁能源的央行,那将是一件好事……但这并不是国会赋予美联储的权力。 虽然它可以用自己拥有的权力做到这一点,但如果它走这条路,几乎肯定会很快失去这一权力。
美联储今年已经成立了两个委员会,旨在监测最大银行和整个金融体系中与气候相关的风险。 但鉴于美国在如何或是否应对气候变化问题上存在政治分歧,鲍威尔对潜在的政治回击十分敏感。
鲍威尔在本月的一次记者招待会上说:“我们确实认为我们在气候变化中发挥了作用。我们希望[金融机构]……理解并能够管理其风险”,包括实际风险或所谓的过渡风险,或与转向低碳经济相关的成本。
但他拒绝了环保团体要求美联储影响某些能源投资借贷成本的呼吁。 “这不是银行监管机构或任何机构的决定。 这是民选代表的决定,”他说。
布雷纳德女士详细介绍了美联储如何指导最大的银行管理与气候相关的风险,作为监测金融系统潜在风险的更广泛努力的一部分。布雷纳德女士在10月份说:“这是一个美国一直落后的领域,我们需要迎头赶上。”
尽管如此,其他对监测气候风险的必要性更为直言不讳的美联储官员最近警告称,不要向央行要求太多。
“我鼓励大家不要认为美联储是我们解决气候风险的灵丹妙药,”旧金山联邦储备银行行长Mary Daly上周说。


Two Democrats Oppose New Term for Powell


Two liberal Democratic senators said Friday they would oppose a second term for Federal Reserve Chairman Jerome Powell because they want the central bank to play a more aggressive role addressing climate change.
Sens. Jeff Merkley (D., Ore.) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D., R.I.) issued a statement calling on President Biden to appoint a Fed chair “who will ensure the Fed…shares the administration’s view that fighting climate change is the responsibility of every policy maker. That person is not Jerome Powell.” Mr. Biden is deciding between reappointing Mr. Powell, a Republican, when his four year term expires in February, or promoting Fed governor Lael Brainard, a Democrat, who has largely supported Mr. Powell’s approach on interest-rate policy while advocating a tougher regulatory posture.
Three Senate Democrats have publicly opposed a second term for Mr. Powell. The other is Sen. Elizabeth Warren (D., Mass.). None of them have endorsed an alternative candidate.
Mr. Powell likely faces a much more comfortable path to gaining 50 Senate votes in any confirmation process because he enjoys support from lawmakers in both parties. Ms.  Brainard is more likely to be confirmed on a near party-line vote.
Other Democrats, including Montana Sen. Jon Tester, have opposed calls to replace Mr.  Powell because they have said they don’t want to take steps that further politicize the operations of the central bank.
Mr. Powell, 68 years old, is a former private-equity executive who was nominated in 2011 by former President Barack Obama to join the Fed board and tapped four years ago by former President Donald Trump to lead the central bank.
Ms. Brainard, 59, is an economist who joined the Fed in 2014 after working in the Obama Treasury Department and the Clinton White House on international economic issues.
Progressive Democrats have grown frustrated this year over the prospects of addressing climate change through the legislative process and have instead turned their focus to regulatory agencies to advance overhauls through the administrative process.
Environmental groups have placed more pressure on the Fed to use its powers overseeing the safety and soundness of the banking system to take steps that range from monitoring banks’ resilience to climate- related weather events to more actively influencing borrowing costs for fossil-fuel related investments.
Other Democrats have said the push for the Fed to unilaterally tackle climate risks is misguided because it could create political opposition and prompt Congress to curb its autonomy more broadly.
“It would be great to have a central bank that actively promoted clean energy…but this is not a power that has been given to the Fed by Congress,” said Dean Baker, a cofounder of the liberal Center for Economic and Policy Research.
“While it can arguably do this with the power it has, it would be virtually certain to lose this power very quickly if it went this route.” The Fed this year has built out two committees designed to monitor climate-related risks in the biggest banks and in the financial system as a whole.
But Mr. Powell has been sensitive to potential political blowback, given the U.S. political divisions over how or whether to address climate change.
“We do think we have a role in climate change,” Mr. Powell said at a press conference this month. “We expect [financial institutions]…to understand and be in a position to manage their risks,” including physical risks or so-called transition risks, or the costs associated with moving to a lower-carbon economy.
But he pushed back against calls from environmental groups for the Fed to influence the cost of borrowing for certain energy investments.  “That’s not a decision for bank regulators or for any agency.  That’s a decision for elected representatives,” he said.
Ms. Brainard has detailed ways for the Fed to direct the biggest banks to manage climate- related risks as part of a broader effort to monitor potential hazards to the financial system. “It’s an area where the U.S. has been behind, and we need to catch up,” Ms. Brainard said in October.
Other Fed officials who have been more vocal about the need to monitor climate risks have nevertheless warned recently against asking too much of the central bank.
“I would encourage all of us not to think the Fed is the magic solution to how we’re going to solve climate risk,” said San Francisco Fed President Mary Daly last week. 

英文原文摘自11月21日《华尔街日报》



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