Unleashing the Second American Century: Four Forces for Economic Dominance.）
不用说，我们并不完美。偏见当然依然存在。但没有一个国家像美国那样欢迎和接受新移民，或者从中受益更多。这给了我们一个巨大的优势，也是一个很大程度上隐藏的优势。硅谷企业家、纽约大学教授维韦克·瓦德瓦（Vivek Wadhwa）的一项研究表明，硅谷24%的初创企业都是由外国出生的企业家发起的，这些人大多是印度人和中国人，也有以色列人、俄罗斯人、法国人和其他人。例如，世界上最重要的计算机芯片制造商英特尔（Intel）是由来自匈牙利的二战难民安德鲁·格罗夫（Andrew Grove）共同创立的。谷歌的联合创始人谢尔盖·布林出生于俄罗斯。出生于印度的维诺德·科斯拉（Vinod Khosla）是Sun Microsystems的联合创始人，贝宝的四位联合创始人中，有两位出生在别处，分别是出生在乌克兰的马克斯·列夫钦（Max Levchin）和出生在南非的埃隆·马斯克（Elon Musk）。出生于法国的皮埃尔·奥米迪亚（Pierre Omidyar）的父母来自伊朗，他创立了eBay。SanDisk是闪存领域的领导者，由出生于以色列的Eli Harari共同创立。
In the 1980s, when Japanese manufacturing processes were among the most advanced in the world, hundreds of articles and books were written about the Japanese challenge. Many focused on the just-in-time production process as a fundamental element of Japan’s success. Just in time (JIT) was a process for delivering component parts to factories when they were needed, thus
eliminating the need for maintaining large, expensive parts inventories and warehouses.
It makes sense that JIT emerged in Japan, a country where real estate is scarce and expensive. Toyota, one of the developers of the process, saw no benefit in building expensive warehouses if it didn’t need to, or stockpiling windshields, wheels, or gears. Instead, it integrated its suppliers into its production processes so windshields and the other components would arrive at the factory just in time to be placed on the cars working their way through the assembly line.
But it didn’t take long—less than a decade—for this
quintessential Japanese process to become a fundamental part of the American production process. In the United States, a much larger country than Japan, JIT production went well beyond the original concept. By the early 1990s, trucking, transportation, and shipping companies—Yellow, UPS, FedEx, and others—set up their own massive regional distribution centers where parts could be shipped, kept for an hour or two, and then moved to the factory when they were needed. In a short span of time, this Japanese process became Americanized as shipping and transportation companies transformed themselves from truck operators to logistics handling companies built around just-in-time deliveries. An idea
hatched in Japan was perfected in the United States.
Transmuting—and sometimes even perfecting—ideas developed elsewhere is fundamental to the way America does business. And, while we
chide ourselves unduly regarding what we believe to be a slow rate of change, the fact is that no other country changes more rapidly than we do—nor is any other country as open to new ideas.
These are generalizations, to be sure. But they carry more than a
modicum of truth. The JIT concept is just one example of how this openness to new ideas plays out in real life. I could cite many others.
But there is an even more important side of American openness that often gets short shrift. It is of course, all well and good that we are open to ideas. More important, though, is our openness in our communities to new people, along with their ideas. This kind of openness is what truly gives us the power to grow, and it is more important than the power of concepts like just-in-time deliveries.
It goes without saying that we are not perfect. Prejudice certainly persists. But no country welcomes and accepts newly arrived people or has benefited more from that acceptance the way America has. This has given us a tremendous advantage—and a largely hidden one. According to a study by Vivek Wadhwa, a Silicon Valley entrepreneur who is also a professor at New York University, 24 percent of Silicon Valley’s startups were launched by foreign-born entrepreneurs, mostly Indian and Chinese, but also Israeli, Russian, French, and others. For example, Intel, the world’s most important maker of computer chips, was cofounded by Andrew Grove, a World War II refugee from Hungary. Google’s cofounder Sergey Brin is Russian-born. Indian-born Vinod Khosla cofounded Sun Microsystems, and of the four cofounders of PayPal, two were born elsewhere—Max Levchin, who was born in Ukraine, and Elon Musk, who was born in South Africa. The French-born Pierre Omidyar, whose parents were from Iran, founded eBay. SanDisk, a leader in flash memory, was cofounded by Israel-born Eli Harari.